Diagnostic and treatment implications of psychosis secondary to treatable metabolic disorders in adults: a systematic review

Abstract

Objective

It is important for psychiatrists to be aware of certain inborn errors of metabolism (IEMs) as these rare disorders can present as psychosis, and because definitive treatments may be available for treating the underlying metabolic cause. A systematic review was conducted to examine IEMs that often present with schizophrenia-like symptoms.

Data sources

Published literature on MEDLINE was assessed regarding diseases of homocysteine metabolism (DHM; cystathionine beta-synthase deficiency [CbS-D] and homocysteinemia due to methyltetrahydrofolate reductase deficiency [MTHFR-D]), urea cycle disorders (UCD), acute porphyria (POR), Wilson disease (WD), cerebrotendinous-xanthomatosis (CTX) and Niemann-Pick disease type C (NP-C).

Study selection

Case reports, case series or reviews with original data regarding psychiatric manifestations and cognitive impairment published between January 1967 and June 2012 were included based on a standardized four-step selection process.

Data extraction

All selected articles were evaluated for descriptions of psychiatric signs (type, severity, natural history and treatment) in addition to key disease features.

 

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