Department of Internal Medicine, Bezhanijska Kosa University Medical Center, Belgrade University, Serbia and Montenegro. Ljudmila_Stojanovich@yahoo.com
Psychiatric abnormalities are common in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) with a prevalence of 17% to 75%, reflecting different methods of patient selection and assessment, the different professional orientation of clinicians, and lack of an accepted consensus for diagnosing active neuropsychiatric lupus (NPSLE). The psychiatric syndromes included in the ACR Neuropsychiatric Lupus Nomenclature Committee criteria are cognitive dysfunction, acute confusional state (delirium), anxiety disorder, mood disorder, and psychosis. In SLE patients, identification of psychiatric phenomena and the generation of a differential diagnosis are crucial. Possible mechanisms include vascular injury and pathogenic antibodies. Treatment strategies are based on small case studies. The purpose of this review is to discuss clinical manifestations, pathogenesis and the present therapeutic options in psychiatric lupus.
- [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]