Vitamin and mineral intakes in adults with mood disorders: comparisons to nutrition standards and associations with sociodemographic and clinical variables.

J Am Coll Nutr. 2011 Dec;30(6):547-58.


Department of Community Health Sciences, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta, Canada.



The purpose of this study was to investigate the nutrient intakes of people with mood disorders.


A cross-sectional survey using 3-day food records was carried out in 97 adults with bipolar or major depressive disorder to compare nutrient intakes with Dietary Reference Intakes and British Columbia Nutrition Survey (BCNS) data. Blood levels of selected nutrients were compared to reference ranges. Bivariate and multivariate analyses examined the effects of sociodemographic and clinical variables on nutrient intakes.


The average age of respondents was 46 (±13) years; most were women (n = 69) who had less than a university degree (n = 60) and whose incomes were in the government-defined lower range (n = 39). Compared with the BCNS, a larger proportion of the sample was below the estimated average requirement for thiamin (26% vs 8%), riboflavin (21% vs 4%), folate (64% vs 27%), phosphorous (12% vs 1%), and zinc (39% vs 15%; all P < 0.0001), as well as vitamin B(6) (25% vs 16%) and vitamin B(12) (27% vs 8%; both P < 0.05). Combined intakes of food and supplements helped reduce the prevalence of inadequacy; however, with supplementation, the proportion of participants exceeding the tolerable upper intake levels for niacin, vitamin B(6), folate, vitamin C, calcium, magnesium, iron, and zinc ranged from 1%-8%. Income, relationship status, age, gender, and caloric intake were associated with intakes of many nutrients. Types of medications were associated with nutrient intakes, as lower intakes of thiamin and phosphorous (P < 0.05) were found with antidepressant use, higher calcium and iron intakes (P < 0.05) were associated with antianxiety medication use, and magnesium intakes were increased with mood stabilizers (regression coefficient = 52.61, P < 0.05, 95% confidence interval = 0.74 to 104.48).


Adults with mood disorders are at risk for many nutrient inadequacies, as well as occasional excesses; social, demographic, and clinical factors may affect their nutrient intakes.

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