Best Practice: Assessment of psychosis

BMJ:  helping doctors make better decisions

Step-by-step diagnostic approach

The evaluation of the acutely psychotic patient includes a thorough history and physical examination, as well as laboratory tests. Based on the initial findings, further diagnostic tests may be warranted.

Organic causes must be considered and excluded before the psychosis is attributed to a primary psychotic disorder.

The most common cause of acute psychosis is drug toxicity from recreational, prescription, or OTC drugs.

Patients with structural brain conditions, or toxic or metabolic process presenting with psychosis, usually have other physical manifestations that are readily detectable by history, neurological examination, or routine laboratory tests.

Brain imaging is reserved for patients with specific indications, such as head trauma or focal neurological signs. The routine use of such imaging is unlikely to reveal an underlying organic cause and is not recommended.

Medical history

A careful medical history should be taken to identify possible organic causes of the psychosis. This should be considered even if the patient has a known primary psychotic disorder, as organic and psychiatric causes can co-exist. Key features of the history include:

    • History of recent or past head trauma: a recent head trauma should raise suspicion of a subdural haematoma. Previous head trauma may cause a seizure disorder and increases the risk of schizophrenia.
    • Recent seizures or a known history of a seizure disorder: it is important to establish the timing of psychosis in relation to seizure activity (postictal, ictal, and interictal).
    • Neurological symptoms: key symptoms that should prompt suspicion of organic CNS disease include new-onset headaches or changes in headache pattern, focal weakness or sensory loss, visual disturbance (double vision or partial vision loss), and speech deficits, including dysarthrias and aphasias. Abnormal body movements, memory loss, and tremor in older patients should prompt suspicion of dementia. Fluctuating consciousness suggests that delirium is present.
    • Recreational drug use: any recent use of alcohol, cocaine, cannabis, amphetamines, or phencyclidine should prompt suspicion of drug-induced psychosis. A history of heavy alcohol, benzodiazepine, or barbiturate use followed by abrupt cessation should raise suspicion of a withdrawal syndrome, especially if the onset is abrupt.
    • Prescription medications: common offending medications include anticholinergic drugs, dopamine agonists, corticosteroids, adrenergic drugs (stimulants, propranolol, clonidine), and thyroid hormones. It is important to establish when any new drugs were started, or when doses were changed, and how the timing relates to the onset of symptoms.
    • OTC medications: common offending drugs include dextromethorphan, antihistamines, and medications containing phenylpropanolamine, especially if used chronically or at very high doses.
    • Exposure to heavy metals: if the main water supply is from a well or the patient has any occupation or hobby that involves chemical or heavy metal exposure, heavy metal poisoning should be suspected. Physical symptoms of lead toxicity include nausea, vomiting, diarrhoea, anaemia, weakness in limbs, and convulsions. Common symptoms of arsenic poisoning are vomiting, diarrhoea, kidney failure, pigmentation of soles and palms, hypersalivation, and progressive blindness. Mercury toxicity presents with symptoms of metallic taste, hypersalivation, gingivitis, tremors, and blushing. Psychosis with mercury toxicity is rare.
    • Exposure to organophosphates: a history of the use of pesticides (especially in farm workers) should prompt suspicion of organophosphate poisoning. The diagnosis is clinical. There is often an initial acute cholinergic crisis and an intermediate phase of respiratory paralysis (24 to 96 hours), followed at 1 to 3 weeks by neuropathy. Physical symptoms and signs include bronchospasm, nausea and vomiting, blurred vision, diaphoresis, confusion, anxiety, respiratory paralysis, and extrapyramidal symptoms.
    • Dietary history: the use of extreme diets (such as vegan diets), eating disorders, or malnutrition related to alcoholism, drug dependence, or deprivation increases risk of vitamin deficiencies. Deficiencies of vitamin B12, folate, thiamine, and niacin can all cause psychosis. A malabsorption syndrome may produce changes in bowel habit.
    • Recent surgery: hypoxia should be considered if an acute psychosis occurs during the postoperative period.
    • Family history may reveal a genetic-based neurological, metabolic, or autoimmune disorder in a first-degree relative. Wilson’s disease is the most common inherited cause of psychosis. A history of a primary psychotic disorder in a first-degree relative may also be present.
    • Travel history: if infectious encephalitis is suspected as the cause, a travel history is important to assess the risk of exposure to infectious causes, such as parasites (rare in the US).
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  1. Robert Whitaker’s recent work, and book “Anatomy of an Epidemic” points out that the antidepressants and ADHD drugs cause mania (and suicidal thoughts / depression). And that ADRs and withdrawal symptoms from just these types of drugs have been misdiagnosed as bipolar in over a million American children so far. The magnitude of iatrogenic harm being done is almost unfathomable.

  2. I agree with Someone’s comment .
    Also would like to point out that the best practices assessment on mercury toxicity and psychosis as being “rare’ is misleading information . Furthermore it is a big player in various manifestations of mental and/or emotional distress, active at different levels from different sources in various individuals across a wide range of symtoms and can negatively effect any part of the human body and does also enter the brain. It is the second deadliest element on the periodic table next to liquid plutonium .American Dental Association silver amalgam filings each contain 50% to 53% mercury . A compound of mercury is in the flu shot which is pushed for free everywhere. Its in many varieties of fish and comes out of coal production into the air .200,000,000 people have amalgam fillings in their mouth. About one out of have problems excreting out of their bodies. Some folks especially the poor have lots of mercury laden fillings in their mouth. It’s not just the number of them in the mouth its the size of them. see DAMS (Dental Amalgam Mercury Solutions ) see what retired neurosurgeon has to say . We haven’t even looked at the global picture or numbers of installed mercury laden amalgam etc. This requires deep research because it is in the financial and power interests of powerful organizations to stonewall and coverup info on on this subject. For example even the present US President wittingly or not appointed as head of the FDA early in his administration Dr. Marilyn Hamberg . She previously for 6 years on the board of directors of Henry Schein Inc.the largest distributer of mercury laden amalgam in America. While head of the FDA she protected Schein company interests instead of that of children’s interests across the country. Mercury is a Neuro Toxin . Do your deep research to see how far the rathole goes.

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